The Sayyids and Lodhi Sultans [1414 AD - 1526 AD]
The Tughlaq dynasty ended soon after the Timurs invasion but the sultanate survived, though it was merely a shadow of its former self. Timurs nominee captured Delhi and was proclaimed the new sultan and the first of Sayyid Dynasty (1414 AD - 1451 AD), which was to rule the earlier half of the fifteenth century. Their rule was short-lived and confined to a radius of some 200 miles around Delhi. They kept the machinery going until a more capable dynasty, the Lodhis, took over. The Lodhis were of pure Afghan origin, and brought an eclipses to the Turkish nobility.
Bahlul Lodhi established himself in Punjab after
the Timur's invasion. The most important Lodhi Sultan was Sikandar Lodhi (1489 -
1517), who controlled the Ganga Valley as far as Bengal. He moved his capital
from Delhi, to be able to control the kingdom better, to a new town which later
become famous as the city of Agra. The last, Lodhi Ibrahim, asserted his
absolute power and did not consider the tribal feelings. This lead to his making
enemies with them. Finally they plotted with Babar and succeeded in overthrowing
him in 1526 at the first battle of Panipat.
As the power of the Sultanate declined, a number of other kingdoms arose.
In Western India - Malwa and Gujarat,
In Eastern India - Jaunpur and Bengal,
In Northern India - Kashmir, and
In the Deccan and the south - The Vijayanagara and the Bahamani.
As the Islamic population in India swelled, the
identity of the Indian Moslem acquired a new definition. Islam now actively
influenced most facets of life. The Hindu elite adopted the purdha system and
their language began to be written in Arabic script, leading to a new language,
Urdu. Calligraphy came into its own and was raised to the highest form of
Around this time on the north-western part of India, especially around Punjab a new religion Sikhism started to gain popularity